Bounds on the minimum distance of linear codes

Bounds on linear codes [196,4] over GF(4)

lower bound:146
upper bound:146


Construction of a linear code 
[196,4,146] over GF(4):
[1]:  [85, 81, 3] "Hamming code (r = 4)" Linear Code over GF(2^2)
      4-th order HammingCode over GF( 4)
[2]:  [85, 4, 64] Cyclic Linear Code over GF(2^2)
     Dual of [1]
[3]:  [170, 4, 128] Cyclic Linear Code over GF(2^2)
     Juxtaposition of [2] and  [2]
[4]:  [28, 4, 20] Linear Code over GF(2^2)
     Construction from a stored generator matrix
[5]:  [198, 4, 148] Linear Code over GF(2^2)
     Juxtaposition of [4] and  [3]
[6]:  [196, 4, 146] Linear Code over GF(2^2)
     Puncturing of [5] at { 197 .. 198 }

last modified: 2001-12-17

From Brouwer's table (as of 2007-02-13)

Lb(196,4) = 146 is found by truncation of:
Lb(198,4) = 148 is found by concatenation of
[28,4,20] and [170,4,128]-codes

Ub(196,4) = 146 follows by the Griesmer bound.


  • All codes establishing the lower bounds where constructed using MAGMA.
  • Upper bounds are taking from the tables of Andries E. Brouwer, with the exception of codes over GF(7) with n>50. For most of these codes, the upper bounds are rather weak. Upper bounds for codes over GF(7) with small dimension have been provided by Rumen Daskalov.
  • Special thanks to John Cannon for his support in this project.
  • A prototype version of MAGMA's code database over GF(2) was written by Tat Chan in 1999 and extended later that year by Damien Fisher. The current release version was developed by Greg White over the period 2001-2006.
  • Thanks also to Allan Steel for his MAGMA support.
  • My apologies to all authors that have contributed codes to this table for not giving specific credits.

  • If you have found any code improving the bounds or some errors, please send me an e-mail:
    codes [at]

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This page is maintained by Markus Grassl ( Last change: 27.03.2010